Old Testament References in the Book of Revelation

Revelation

Revelation 1

1:1 alludes to Dan 2:28-30; 2:45-47

1:4a echoes Exod 3:14; Deut 32:39; Isa 41:4; 43:10; 44:6; 48:12

1:4b is a paraphrased allusion to Zech 4:2-7 and perhaps Isa 11:2-10

1:5 draws on Psalm 89:27, 37 (cf. Isa 55:4)

1:6 echoes Exod 19:6

1:7 is a composite of Dan 7:13 and Zech 12:10

1:8 is perhaps based on similar clauses in Isa 41-48 (cf. Isa 41:4; 44:6; 48:12)

1:10-11 carries the language of Ezekiel’s repeated experiences in the Spirit (cf. Ezek 2:2; 3:12; etc) and also evokes Exod 19:16, 19, 20

1:12 draws from Zech 4:2, 10 (cf. Exod 25; 37; Num 8)

1:13-16 draws predominantly from Dan 7; 10, but is apparently pulling from Isa 11:4; 49:2; Zech 4:3, 11, 14; Ezek 1:24, 27; 43:2 as well

1:17 follows the pattern of Dan 10:8-20 and echoes Isa 41:4; 44:6; 48:12

1:19 is composed, like 1:1a, with terminology from Dan 2

1:20 uses the expression “mystery” in the same sense as Daniel, the only OT book where it occurs

 

Revelation 2

2:7a is based on virtually the same wording found in the Synoptics, which itself alludes to Isa 6:9-11

2:7b alludes to Gen 2-3

2:10 contains an allusion to Dan 1:12-15

2:14 references the events of Num 22:5-25:3; 31:8, 16

2:14-15 continues the parallel with Balaam (cf. Num 22:23, 31)

2:17 references Exod 16:31-36; Num 11:7

2:20 references the events of 1 Kings 16:31-32; 21:25-26; 2 Kings 8:18; 9:22

2:23 alludes to Jer 17:10 (cf. Ps 7:9; 28:4; 62:11; Prov 24:12; Jer 11:20)

2:26-27 quotes Ps 2:9

2:28 alludes to Num 24:17

 

Revelation 3

3:4-5 points to Dan 11-12 with the imagery of “white robes” and the “book of life”

3:7-8 alludes to Isa 22:22 and Isa 45:1

3:9 contains a collective allusion to Isa 45:14; 49:23; 60:14 and Ps 86:9

3:10 may be alluding to Dan 12:1, 10

3:12 evokes Isa 56:3-5 (cf. Isa 62:2; 65:15) with the promise of being a pillar in the temple. Also, “the name of the city of my God” recalls Ezek 48:35

3:14 likely points to Isa 65:15-17 with the Divine title “the Amen, the faithful and true” as well as the concluding “the beginning of the creation of God”

 

Revelation 4

The whole structure of the throne room vision of chapters 4 and 5 corresponds to that of Dan 7:9-28.

4:3 combines references from Ezek 1:26, 28; 10:1 and 28:13 (cf. Exod 24:10; 28:17-20)

4:5 is patterned after Zech 4:2-3; 4:10

4:6a has Ezek 1:22 in the background

4:6b-8a continues to draw from Ezek 1 (Ezek 1:5-21; cf. Ezek 10:12-15; 10:20-22)

4:8b echoes Isa 6:3

4:9b echoes Dan 12:7

 

Revelation 5

5:1b evokes the imagery of Ezek 2:9b-Ezek 2:10, perhaps also merging Dan 21:1, 4, 9 with Isa 29:11

5:2 may contain further inspiration from Dan 12:1-13 (cf. Isa 29)

5:5 recalls Gen 49:9; Isa 11:1, 10

5:6 broadly refers to the OT Passover lamb while perhaps carrying specific reference to Isa 53:7

5:6 also references Zech 3:4 (cf. Zech 3:9; 4:2, 10)

5:7 echoes Dan 7:13

5:10 echoes Isa 19:6 and perhaps Dan 7:22b, Dan 27a

5:11 borrows language from Dan 7:10

5:12 combines 1 Chron 29:11-12 and Dan 2:20

5:13 may be a collective reflection of Exod 20:11; Nehemiah 9:6; Ps 146:6 (cf. Dan 2:38; 4:37 LXX)

 

Revelation 6

6:1-8 may have Zech 6:1-8 as its main OT background (cf. Zech 1:8-15)

6:7-8 directly alludes to Ezek 14:19-21 and possibly echoes Hos 13:8

6:10 alludes to Ps 89:5, 10

6:12-14 is heavily influenced by Isa 13:10-13; 24:1-6; 24:19-23; 34:4; Ezek 32:6-8; Joel 2:10, 30, 31; 3:15-16; Hab 3:6-11 (cf., secondarily, Ps 68:7-8; Jer 4:23-28; Amos 8:8-9)

6:15 quotes Isa 34:12 LXX (cf. Ps 2:2)

6:16 alludes to Hos 10:8 (cf. Hos 10:1-3; 11:2)

6:17 alludes to Joel 2:10-11

 

Revelation 7

7:2-3 holds Ezek 9 in the background

7:9 evokes the promise to Abraham and Jacob that God would multiply their descendants, “which shall not be numbered for multitude” (e.g. Gen 16:10; 32:12)

7:14 owes Dan 12:1 for the phrase “the great tribulation”

7:15 echoes Ezek 37:26-28 (LXX)

7:16-17 alludes to Isa 49:9-10 (cf. Isa 25:8)

 

Revelation 8

8:3-5 is modeled to a great extent after Ezek 10:1-7

8:4 refers to prayer metaphorically as Ps 141:2

8:5 may have Exod 19:16-18 in mind

8:7 is patterned after Exod 9:23-25 (LXX)

8:8-9 alludes to Exod 7:15-24

8:10 may extend the allusion to Exod 7 from vv. 8-9 (cf. Ps 78:44)

8:11 may allude to Deut 29:17-18

8:13 may allude to Hos 8:1 (cf. Jer 4:13)

 

Revelation 9

9:2 may have Exod 10:15 in view, where the locust plague is so great that it darkens the land (cf. Joel 2:2, 10)

9:4 may be an intentional contrast with Exod 10:15 (cf. Ps 105:33-35)

9:7-9 is based on the locust plague of Joel 1-2

9:8 quotes Joel 1:6

9:9 may make a partial allusion to Job 39:19-25 (LXX)

9:14 may contain echoes of Jer 46

9:19 echoes Job’s portrait of the sea dragon, the symbol of cosmic evil (Job 40-41)

 

Revelation 10

10:1 may reflect Exod 19:9-19 and Ezek 1:26-28, but the portrait of chapter 10 is based mostly on Daniel 10-12

10:3a may allude to Amos 3:8

10:3b may be based on Ps 29

10:5-7 is a direct allusion to Dan 12:7, which is a development of Deut 32:40

10:7 may also allude to Amos 3:7

10:9-10 is dependant on Ezek 2:8-3:3

 

Revelation 11

11:1 may allude to the measuring of the temple in Ezek 40-48

11:2 quotes Dan 8:13 (cf. Isa 63:18), combining it with Dan 12:7

11:3 may assume the law of Num 35:30 (cf. Deut 17:6; 19:15)

11:4 is dependant on Zech 4:14 (cf. Zech 4:2-3; 4:11-14)

11:5 may echo Jer 5:14 (cf. 2 Kings 1:10)

11:6 alludes to 1 Kings 11 and Exod 7:17-25

11:7-8 carries language from Dan 7 (Dan 7:3, 8, 21)

11:11 echoes Ezek 37:5, 10

11:13 echoes Ezek 38:19

11:18 is patterned after Jeremiah’s announcement of the judgment of historical Babylon, and the contrasted blessing for the saints echoes Ps 115:13

 

Revelation 12

12:1 is based on Gen 37:9

12:2 carries a common OT metaphor representing Israel’s sufferings (e.g. Isa 26:17-18; 66:7-9; Mic 4:9-10; 5:3), yet these texts themselves were inspired by Gen 3:15-16

12:3 may carry an allusion to Ezek 29:3

12:4 alludes to Dan 8:10

12:7 is developed from Dan 10:13, 21 and Dan 12:1

12:8 is based on nearly the same wording from Dan 2:35

12:9-10 refers back to Gen 3:1, 14 (cf. Job 1:6-11; 2:1-6; Zech 3:1-2)

12:14 combines allusions to Exod 19:4; Deut 1:31-33; 32:10-15

12:15 may contain an allusion to Dan 9:24

12:16 echoes Exod 15:12

 

Revelation 13

The depiction of the two beasts in this chapter are based in part on Job 40-41, which is the only place in the OT that portrays two satanic beasts that oppose God.

13:1-2 is a creative reworking of Dan 7:1-7

13:3 reflects Gen 3:15

13:4 is based on Dan 7:6

13:5 is a collective allusion to Dan 7:6, 8, 11, 20, 25

13:6 alludes to Dan 7:25; 11:36

13:7a is based on Dan 7:8 (LXX)

13:7b-8a continues the dependence on Dan 7 by quoting Dan 7:14 but reversing it from the “son of man” to the “beast”

13:10 is a paraphrase combining Jer 15:2 and Jer 43:11

13:11 alludes to Dan 7:17 (LXX)

13:13 is an ironic echo of the ministry of Moses (e.g. Exod 4:17, 30; 10:2; 11:10)

13:14-15 echoes Dan 3

 

Revelation 14

14:5 carries an allusion to Zeph 3:13, which itself may be an allusion to Isa 53:9

14:8 echoes Isa 21:9; Jer 25:15-16; 51:7-8

14:10 echoes Isa 51:17; Jer 25:15-18; 32:15 LXX

14:11 draws its portrait from Isa 34:9-10

14:17-20 is developed from Joel 3:13

 

Revelation 15

15:2 may contain an allusion to Dan 7:10

15:3a refers to the song of Moses in Exod 15:1-18 (or perhaps Deut 32)

15:3b carries language from throughout the OT, but particularly from Deut 28:59-60 LXX and Ps 110:2-4 LXX

15:4 recalls Jer 10:7, but Ps 86:9-10 is the basis for most of the language

15:7 may derive its imagery from Isa 51:17, 22

15:8 contains a collective echo to Exod 40:34-35; 1 Kings 8:10-11; 2 Chron 5:13; Isa 6:1, 4 LXX

 

Revelation 16

16:1 carries an allusion to Isa 66:6

16:2 echoes Exod 9:9-11

16:6 echoes Ps 79:3, 10, 12

16:12 echoes Exod 14:21-22 (cf. Isa 11:15; 44:27; 50:2; 51:10)

16:16 is likely evoking Ezek 38:21 and Zech 14:4, but Judges 5:19 is the main referent

16:18 echoes the Sinai theophany of Exod 19, and is also influenced by Ezek 38:19-22

16:21 alludes to Exod 9:22-34 and Ezek 38:19-22

 

Revelation 17

17:1 echoes Jer 51:13 (Jer 28:13 LXX)

17:3a makes an allusion to Isa 21:1-2

17:4 makes an allusion to Jer 4:30; 2:34 (cf. Isa 1:15-22)

17:6 uses the same metaphor as Isa 34:5-7; 49:26; Jer 46:10

17:9b makes an allusion to Dan 7:4-7

17:12 makes an allusion to Dan 7:7-8; 7:20; 7:24

17:14a uses the same phraseology as Dan 7:21

17:15 echoes Isa 17:12-13; Jer 51:13

17:16 echoes Ezek 23:25-29; 23:47

 

Revelation 18

18:1 alludes to Ezek 43:2

18:2 echoes the portrayal of Babylon’s fall in Isa 13:21; 34:11, 14

18:3 recalls Ezek 27:12 LXX (cf. Ezek 27:33 LXX)

18:4 is patterned after Jer 51:45 (cf. Isa 52:11)

18:5 echoes Jer 51:9

18:6 evokes Ps 136:8 (cf. Jer 27:29; 28:24)

18:7-8 echoes Isa 47:7-9

18:9 echoes Jer 51:8

18:10 is patterned after Ezek 26:16-18 LXX (cf. Ezek 27:33)

18:12-13 is based in part on Ezek 27:7-25

18:16 is patterned after Ezek 27:12-24

18:17b-19 is patterned after Ezek 27:28-33

18:20 echoes Jer 51:48

18:21 is based on Jer 51:63

18:22-23b alludes to Isa 24:8 and its context

18:23c-23d echoes Isa 23:9 LXX

 

Revelation 19

19:7-8 echoes Isa 61:10

19:13 contains an allusion to Isa 63:1-3

19:15 is based on Isa 49:2, and echoes Isa 11:4 and Ps 2:9

19:16 may allude to Gen 24:2, 9; 47:29

19:17-18 alludes to Ezek 39:4; 39:17-20

19:19 alludes to Ps 2:2

19:21 repeats the allusion from v. 15 to Isa 49:2 and Isa 11:4

 

Revelation 20

20:1-3 is based on Isa 24:21-22

20:4 is based on Dan 7:9-11

20:8-10 contains repeated allusions to Ezek 38-39

20:11 alludes to Dan 7:9; Ezek 1:26-28

20:12 combines allusions to Dan 7:10 and Dan 12:1-2

 

Revelation 21

21:1 echoes Isa 65:17; 66:22

21:2 echoes Isa 52:1b

21:3 echoes Ezek 43:7 and Ezek 37:26-28

21:4 alludes to Isa 25:8; 35:10; 51:11; 65:17

21:5 draws from Isa 43:19 LXX

21:6 alludes to Isa 49:10

21:7 alludes to 2 Sam 7:14 may be inspired by Isa 55:1-3

21:9-10 combines allusions to Ezek 43:5 LXX and Ezek 40:1-2 LXX

21:11 echoes Isa 58:8; 60:1-2; 60:19

21:12-13 echoes Ezek 40:5-6; 42:15-19; 48:31-34

21:15 alludes to Ezek 40:3-5

21:16 alludes to Ezek 45:2-3, and may also have 1 Kings 6:20 in mind

21:18-20 is based on 1 Kings 6:20-22; Exod 28:17-20; Isa 54:11-12

21:23 is based on Isa 60:19 (cf. Isa 24:23)

21:24-26 alludes to Isa 60:3, 5, 11

 

Revelation 22

22:1-2a combines Zech 14:8 and Ezek 47:1-9, but goes back ultimately to Gen 2:10

22:2b is based on Ezek 47:12 (cf. Isa 41:17-20; 43:18-20)

22:3 echoes Zech 14:11

22:5 alludes to Num 6:25-27

22:10 echoes Dan 12:4

22:11 echoes Dan 12:10

22:12a echoes Isa 47:11; Mal 3:1 (cf. Jer 6:26)

22:12b is an allusion to Isa 40:10; 62:11

22:14 picks up Isa 60 and Gen 3 again, and perhaps includes Ps 118:20 also

22:15 may echo Jer 8:10; Ps 101:3; 101:7-8; Mal 3:5

22:16-17 echoes Isa 11:1 and Isa 55:1

22:18-19 echoes Deut 4:1-2; 29:19-20


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